One Sudan one flag for all of us

One Sudan  one flag for all of us

Friday, August 13, 2010

History Part 2 Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the Egyptian Sudan. The southern section includes Sennar with Dschesireh-el Dschesire (Island of Islands), the ancient Meroe; the western, Bahr el Abiad, Kordofan, and Darfur; the eastern, Tarka; the central, Dongola; and the northern, Nubia proper. The various tribes belong to the Ethiopian or Berber family, intermixed with Arabians; in the south negroes preponderate. Nubia embraces 335,597 square miles and contains 1,000,000 inhabitants; Dongola, Berber, Khartoum, Fashoda, Sennar, Fassuglo, 75,042 square miles with 2,500,000 inhabitants; Taka, 7766 square miles with 1,000,000 inhabitants; Kordofan, 35,069 square miles with 300,000 inhabitants; Darfur, 106,070 square miles with 4,000,000 inhabitants; Shegga, 85,017 square miles with 1,400,000 inhabitants. The chief cities are: Khartoum, at the junction of the White and Blue Niles, founded in 1823 and the starting-point of all scientific and missionary expeditions, destroyed in 1885 by the Mahdi, rebuilt in 1898; Omdurman, on the Abiad, founded by the Mahdi; Sennar, capital of Southern Nubia; Kassala, capital of Taka. On the Nile are Berber, Abu-Hammed, Old Dongola, and New Dongola, capital of central Nubia; in Nubia proper, Derr, Wadi Halfa, and Assuan; in Kordofan, El-Obeid; in Darfur, El Fasho. Formerly the port of Nubia was Suakin on the Red Sea; from 1906 it has been Port Sudan. Nubia is administered by the Viceroy of Egypt.

History

Nubia is said to be derived from the Egyptian Nub (gold), as the Egyptians obtained most of their gold there. In the Bible it is called Cush. Egypt sought repeatedly to extend its southern boundaries, and during the eighteenth dynasty reached Wadi Halfa. A temple was built at Napata (near the Fourth Cataract) by Amenophis III, and Rameses II waged successful war with the Ethiopians. After this there arose in Napata near the sacred mountain Gebel Barkal an independent theocratic state; the remains of many of its temples are still to be seen. During the twenty-third dynasty the Nubians shook off the Egyptian yoke, and even conquered Egypt (750 B.C.); three Nubian kings ruled the united territory (732-668). Psametich I (664-10) drove out the Nubians, and Meroe replaced Napata, which maintained its sovereignty over Nubia until destroyed by the native king Ergamenes during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-47) . During Roman rule, the Nubians attempted to gain the Thebaid, but Petronius in 25 B.C. conquered Napata and forced Queen Candace to make a treaty of peace. In the third century after Christ marauding incursions of Nubian tribes called the Biemmyer forced Diocletian to summon the Nobatæ from El Charge in the Nile valley as confederates of the empire. Nevertheless Prima, Phœnicon, Chiris, Taphis, and Talmis yielded. In. the fourth and fifth centuries the Thebaid was so often devastated that Emperor Marcian was forced to conclude an unfavourable peace in 451. Christianity, brought probably by the hermits and monks of the Thebaid, began to spread through the country. The various accounts of this event are confusing; Pliny and Mela give the name of Ethiopia to all the countries in this region, including Abyssinia, while ecclesiastical writers speak of an Ethiopian Church, but give no account of the conversion of individual lands. Christianity was not yet well established, when about the middle of the sixth century under the protection of the empress Theodora, the Alexandrian priest Julian introduced Monophysitism. Its adherents called themselves Copts. The Nobatæan kings Silko and Eirpanomos accepted Christianity in this form, and the Monophysite patriarch Theodosius, Bishop Theodore of Philæ, and Longinus, Julian's successor, put the new doctrine on a firm basis. In 580 Longinus baptized the King of the Alodæ. The final victory of the Monophysites was secured by their union with the Arabs, soon to be masters of Egypt.
In 640 Amr Ben el-Asi'S, the commander-in-chief of the Arabs, conquered Egypt and ended Byzantine supremacy. The Melchite (Catholic) patriarch, George of Alexandria, fled to Constantinople and his see remained vacant for over a hundred years. The Copts secured peace only by becoming confederates of the enemy, and in return received nearly all the Catholic churches; their patriarch alone exercised jurisdiction over the entire territory. According to the Arabian Makrizi, as related by Ibn Selim, when the Nubians requested bishops they received from Alexandria Monophysites, and in this way became and remained Jacobites or Copts. In the following centuries numerous churches and monasteries were built even in Upper Nubia and Sennar, the ruins of which yet remain. Other documents show that Nubia was divided into three provinces with seventeen bishops: Maracu with the suffragan Dioceses of Korta, Ibrim, Bucoras, Dunkala, Sai, Termus, and Suenkur; Albadia with Borra, Gagara, Martin, Arodias, Banazi, and Menkesa; Niexamitis with Soper, Coucharim, Takchi, and Amankul. Yet Christianity was in continual danger from the Mohammedans. Nubia succeeded in freeing itself from the control of Egypt, which became an independent Mohammedan kingdom in 969, but in 1173 Saladin's brother Schems Eddawalah Turanschah advanced from Yemen, destroyed the churches, and carried off the bishop and 70,000 Nubians. At the same time Northern Nubia was conquered. In 1275 the Mameluke sultan Djahn Beibars sent an army from Egypt into Nubia. Dongola was conquered, the Christian king David was obliged to flee, and the churches were plundered. The inhabitants escaped forcible conversion to Mohammedanism only by payment of a head-tax. Nubia was divided into petty states, chief of which was Sennar, founded in 1484 by the negro Funji. For some time Sennar ruled Shendi, Berber, and Dongola. In the eighteenth century the King of Sennar obtained for a time Kordofan also. From the Middle Ages there is little information as to the position of Christianity; Islam became supreme, partly by force, partly by the amalgamation of the native with the Arabian tribes.
In 1821 Sennar and the dependent provinces submitted to Mohammed Ali, the founder of modern Egypt. The commanding position of the capital, Khartoum, led the Holy See to hope that the conversion of Central Africa could be effected from Nubia. On 26 December, 1845, the Propaganda erected a vicariate, confirmed by Gregory XVI, 3 April, 1846. The Austrian imperial family contributed funds and the mission was under the protection of the Austrian consulate at Khartoum. Missionary work was begun by the Jesuits Ryllo (died 1848) and Knoblecher (died 1858), who pushed forward as far as 4° 10' north of the equator, Kirchner, and several secular priests (among whom were Haller, died 1854, and Gerbl, died 1857). They founded stations at Heiligenkreuz on the Abiad (1855), and at Santa Maria in Gondokoro (1851). In 1861 the missions were transferred to the Franciscans. Father Daniel Comboni (died at Khartoum, 1881) founded an institute at Verona for the training of missionaries to labour among the negroes of Soudan. The Pious Mothers of the Negro Country (Pie Madri della Nigrizia), founded in 1867, devoted itself to conducting schools for girls and dispensaries. The Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed, in 1880 conquered Kordofan, in 1883 vanquished the Egyptian army, and on 26 January, 1885, destroyed Khartoum. A number of priests and sisters were held for years in captivity; the name of Christian seemed obliterated. After the overthrow of his successor, Caliph Abdullah, by the English under Lord Kitchener, 2 September, 1898, the mission was re-established. In 1895 a mission had been opened at Assuan. In 1899 Mgr Roveggio with Fathers Weiler and Huber established a station at Omdurman, and in 1900 founded the mission near the Shilluk and re-established the station at Khartoum. Under his successor, Geyer, stations were opened in 1904 at Halfaya, Lul, Atiko, Kayango; in 1905 at Mbili among the Djur, at Wau in Bahr el Ghazal, and the mission at Suakin, opened in 1885, was resumed. The Sons of the Sacred Cross, as the Missionaries of Verona had been called from 1887, founded a station at Port Sudan.
Starting from Khartoum the missionary territory is divided into a northern and a southern district. The majority of the population in the north is Mohammedan and the chief task of the missionaries is pastoral work among the scattered Christian communities. In 1908 Khartoum had 69,344 inhabitants, Omdurman 57,985, among them about 2307 Europeans, of whom about 1000 are Catholics. Khartoum is served by 2 fathers, 1 brother, and 4 sisters; the schools contain 42 boys and 75 girls. In Omdurman there are 300 Catholics 3 fathers, 1 brother, and 5 sisters; 44 boys and 45 girls attend the school. There is also a school for girls at Halfaya. At Assuan there are 2 fathers, 1 brother, and 4 sisters; 34 boys and 54 girls are taught in the schools. There are 500 Catholics among the workmen. At Port Sudan the Catholics number between 200 and 300. There are Catholics also at Halfa, Abu-Hammed, Dongola, Argo, Meraui, Berber, Atbara, Damer, Shendi, Kassala, Duen, El-Obeid, Bara, and Nahud. The southern missions among the heathen negroes have already advanced beyond the boundaries of Nubia. The statistics for 1907 for the northern and southern missions were: 11 stations, 30 priests, 23 brothers, 41 sisters, 2407 Catholics, 492 boys and girls in the mission-schools.




Monday, August 9, 2010

Majmu

Taj Majmu
                           Majmu is one of our cosmetic products
**It cures foot skin cracking.
**It moisturizes all parts of the skin.
**It combats hair falling out and dandruff.
**It is good for newborn babies' skin.
**It is good for old people's skin.
**It is good for dry noses.
**It is a mosquito repellent.



Both Crown Brand Majamu &Amp: Taj Mahal Brand Majamu have the same formula and quality. There is no difference.
Our top quality Majamu received excellent acceptance in Sudan and abroad. It is a typical indigenous African cosmetic.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Sudanese History (About Sudan (1))



 
Identification. In the Middle Ages, Arabs named the area that is present-day Sudan "Bilad al-Sudan," or "land of the black people." The north is primarily Arab Muslims, whereas the south is largely black African, and not Muslim. There is strong animosity between the two groups and each has its own culture and traditions. While there is more than one group in the south, their common dislike for the northern Arabs has proved a uniting force among these groups.
Location and Geography. Sudan is in Africa, south of Egypt. It shares borders with Egypt, Libya, Chad, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia. It is the largest country in Africa and the ninth largest in the world, covering one million square miles (2.59 million square kilometers). The White Nile flows though the country, emptying into Lake Nubia in the north, the largest manmade lake in the world. The northern part of the country is desert, spotted with oases, where most of the population is concentrated. To the east, the Red Sea Hills support some vegetation. The central region is mainly high, sandy plains. The southern region includes grasslands, and along the border with Uganda the Democratic Republic of the Congo, dense forests. The southern part of the country consists of a basin drained by the Nile, as well as a plateau, and mountains, which mark the southern border. These include Mount Kinyeti, the highest peak in Sudan. Rainfall is extremely rare in the north but profuse in the south, which has a wet season lasting six to nine months. The central region of the country generally gets enough rain to support agriculture, but it experienced droughts in the 1980s and 1990s. The country supports a variety of wildlife, including crocodiles and hippopotamuses in the rivers, elephants (mainly in the south), giraffes, lions, leopards, tropical birds, and several species of poisonous reptiles.
The capital, Khartoum, lies at the meeting point of the White and Blue Niles, and together with Khartoum North and Omdurman forms an urban center known as "the three towns," with a combined population of 2.5 million people. Khartoum is the center for commerce and government; Omdurman is the official capital; and North Khartoum is the industrial center, home to 70 percent of Sudan's industry.
Demography. Sudan has a population of 33.5 million. Fifty-two percent of the population are black and 39 percent are Arab. Six percent are Beja, 2 percent are foreign, and the remaining 1 percent are composed of other ethnicities. There are more than fifty different tribes. These include the Jamala and the Nubians in the north; the Beja in the Red Sea Hills; and several Nilotic peoples in the south, including the Azande, Dinka, Nuer, and Shilluk. Despite a devastating civil war and a number of natural disasters, the population has an average growth rate of 3 percent. There is also a steady rural-urban migration.
Linguistic Affiliation. There are more than one hundred different indigenous languages spoken in Sudan, including Nubian, Ta Bedawie, and dialects of Nilotic and Nilo-Hamitic languages. Arabic is the official language, spoken by more than half of the population. English is being phased out as a foreign language taught in the schools, although it is still spoken by some people.
Symbolism. The flag adopted at independence had three horizontal stripes: blue, symbolizing the Nile

Read more: Culture of Sudan - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs http://www.everyculture.com/Sa-Th/Sudan.html#ixzz1LeTCcwFF

Population of Sudan
Census of 1983 set population at 21.6 millioeople; July 1999 population estimate approximately 30 million. Annual growth rate between 2.8 and 3.1 percent. Half of population under eighteen years of age. About 20 percent of population urban, concentrated chiefly in three cities--Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North--constituting national capital area.


 
 

Link  for more info about sudan
http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/sudan/HISTORY.html

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5424.htm

http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/nub/

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11147a.htm

http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/571417/The-Sudan/281162/History?anchor=ref48892

http://www.worldrover.com/history/sudan_history.html

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Some Sudanese Products for Sale

Sudanese Traditional Perfume  الارياح السودانية التقليدية  


 Khomra                 
لدينا 4 انواع من الخمرة

المحلب والضفرة والمسك والمشكلة

سعر البيع حسب كمية الوزن نحن نزن بالمل
1.15m $15+shipping

2.25ml $30+Shipping

3.50ml $60 +Shipping

4.100ml $100 +Shipping

Depend on how many MLyou pay price from $15 to $100

we sale 4type Dofra one /Mahjlab/Misik/Mixed one/ Plus shipping and Haddling



Sudanese Henna is natural, without chemicals. 

 

Hibiscus tea/Karkadi
Hibiscus tea is the infusion made from the calyces (sepals) of the Hibiscus sabdariffa flower, an herbal tea drink consumed both hot and cold by people around the world. It is also referred to as roselle (another common name for the hibiscus flower), flor de Jamaica in Latin America, karkadé in Egypt and Sudan, bissap in West Africa, sorrel in Jamaica, and red sorrel in the wider Caribbean, and other names in other regions. Hibiscus tea has a tart, cranberry-like flavor, and sugar is often added to sweeten the beverage. The tea contains vitamin C and minerals and is used traditionally as a mild medicine.
Hibiscus tea contains 15-30% organic acids, including citric acid, maleic acid, and tartaric acid. It also contains acidic polysaccharides and flavonoid glycosides, such as cyanidin and delphinidin, that give it its characteristic deep red colour.





Bint El Sudan


 NOTE: When I first acquired a bottle of Bint El Sudan, I knew nothing of its history and wrote my article based on a small knowledge of W.J. Bush & Co. and some surmised about this perfume. Some time after the first version of my story appeared, I was contacted by Mr. Tony Bate, grandson of Eric Burgess, a W.J. Bush & Co. salesman for 50 years and the "instigator" of Bint El Sudan. Mr. Bate provided me with some fascinating information about his grandfather — and the history of Bint El Sudan — which I have used to revise this article. Bint el Sudan perfume is still the top selling perfume in Africa, spically in sudan is one of traditional products and very importnace in sudanese perfume and home sences products.

Bint El Sudan, Side View

                       Eric Burgess, "instigator" of Bint El Sudan perfume.


Bint El Sudan, non-alcoholic perfume

by W.J. Bush & Co.

The story of Bint El Sudan perfume starts with a young Englishman, Eric Burgess (1891-1977) who, at the age of 16, joined the firm of W.J. Bush & Co. where his father was to become a director.
Starting as a "tea boy" (gofer), Eric Burgess soon became a commission salesman. Having been educated in Geneva where the family had a home, Burgess had gained a reputation for fluency in languages. W.J. Bush & Co. made good use of this talent by sending him to foreign lands. Between 1919 and 1920, Eric Burgess found himself in the Sudan.

The story that follows appears to have been told by Burgess himself in several versions. The basic outline is as follows: One blazingly hot day in Khartoum, a band of men "looking like brigands from Omdurman" crowed into the small office of W.J. Bush & Co's local representative. After squatting on the floor and serving tea, they produced a number of vials of exotic fragrance materials. Their desire was to have them made into a perfume
Burgess delivered these vials to the W.J. Bush & Co. laboratories where they were blended into a fragrance — that was too costly for the market! Substitutions were made and a sensible price point was achieved. Bint El Sudan was born!

Introduced in 1920, Bint El Sudan became an amazing hit with its fame spreading east across Africa and west across the Arab Middle East. In keeping with the prohibition enforced by some Muslims, Bint El Sudan was manufactured without alcohol. It's heavy aroma never found favor in Europe but, in the warmer climates where stronger fragrances were favored, Bint El Sudan became a runaway best seller. In time it became the world's best selling, non alcoholic perfume and as recently as the early 1970's, some claim that Bint El Sudan was the world's best selling perfume without exception.

The name Bint El Sudan and the artwork on the bottle are closely connected. "Bint" is Arabic for "daughter" or "maiden" — hence "Bint El Sudan" becomes "Daughter of Sudan", "Sudanese Maiden" or "Sudanese Girl". As to the young woman on the bottle, the artwork was prepared from a photograph Burgess, an amateur photographer, had taken of three Sudanese teenagers (princesses, according to Burgess family tradition) clothed in elephant hair skirts.

The fame of Bint El Sudan became such that it drew counterfeiters who sometimes substituted kerosene for the genuine fragrance. Eric Burgess himself was personally responsible for crackdowns on counterfeiters who, when caught in a British territory, were likely to find themselves jailed.

Today replicas of Bint El Sudan perfume oil are widely available on the internet.

In 1961, W.J. Bush & Co. was sold to Albright & Wilson. In 1966, Albright & Wilson sold it and it became the "Bush" in Bush Boake Allen which, in 2000, became part of International Flavors & Fragrances (IFF).

If you have any comments about Bint El Sudan or W.J. Bush & Co., please share them with us using the message sender below.

introduced in 1920, Bint El Sudan became an amazing hit with its fame spreading east across Africa and west across the Arab Middle East. In keeping with the prohibition enforced by some Muslims, Bint El Sudan was manufactured without alcohol. It's heavy aroma never found favor in Europe but, in the warmer climates where stronger fragrances were favored, Bint El Sudan became a runaway best seller. In time it became the world's best selling, non alcoholic perfume and as recently as the early 1970's, some claim that Bint El Sudan was the world's best selling perfume without exception.

he name Bint El Sudan and the artwork on the bottle are closely connected. "Bint" is Arabic for "daughter" or "maiden" — hence "Bint El Sudan" becomes "Daughter of Sudan", "Sudanese Maiden" or "Sudanese Girl". As to the young woman on the bottle, the artwork was prepared from a photograph Burgess, an amateur photographer, had taken of three Sudanese teenagers (princesses, according to Burgess family tradition) clothed in elephant hair skirts.

References for more info about this topic please check this webs:
http://www.perfumeprojects.com/museum/bottles/Bint_El_Sudan.shtml



http://alisonbate.ca/2011/03/22/surprise-in-the-souk/2/

  To pay bintelsudan in North America
                                                   http://www.bitmaklayenterprises.yolasite.com/